Gender Impacts of the EU Employment Crisis - Youth/Young Women Issues +
THE PRICE OF AUSTERITY - THE IMPACT ON WOMEN'S RIGHTS & GENDER EQUALITY IN EUROPE
Direct Link to Full 20-Page 2012 Presentation:
European Commission - Eurostat
EUROPE UNEMPLOYMENT STATISTICS
Data up to November 2013. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
Unemployment levels and rates move in a cyclical way, largely related to the general business cycle. However, other factors such as labour market policies and demographic developments may influence the short and long-term evolution as well. This article gives an overview of statistical information for unemployment in the European Union (EU) since the year 2000, starting with the most recent developments.
Monthly unemployment and employment series are calculated first at the level of four categories for each Member State (males and females 15-24 years, males and females 25-74 years). These series are then seasonally adjusted and all the national and European aggregates are calculated. Monthly unemployment figures are published by Eurostat as rates (as a percentage of the labour force) or levels (in thousands), by gender and for two age groups (persons aged 15-24, and those aged 25-74). The figures are available as unadjusted, seasonally adjusted and trend series. There are monthly estimates for all EU-28 Member States except for Latvia. Data for the EU-28 aggregate start in 2000 and for the euro area (EA-17) in 1995; the starting point for individual Member States varies.
YOUNG WOMEN & EMPLOYMENT
Gender Disaggregation of Data?
Gender Lens for Suggested Solutions?
Policies & Programs for Many Young Women Who
Must Balance Family & Work Responsibilities?
EDUCATION TO EMPLOYMENT: GETTING EUROPE'S YOUTH INTO WORK -
Youth Unemployment aross the European Union Remains Unacceptably High, to the Detriment of Current& Future Generations.
Addressing It Requires Understanding Causes& Relentlessly Pursuing Solutions
January 2014 - The problem of youth
unemployment in the European Union is not new. Youth unemployment has been
double or even triple the rate of general unemployment in
To understand this disconnect and what can be done about it, McKinsey built on the methodology used in our 2012 publication, Education to Employment: Designing a System that Works.1 We concentrated on four broad questions:
To answer these questions, we surveyed 5,300 youth, 2,600
employers, and 700 postsecondary-education providers across 8 countries that
together are home to almost 73 percent of Europe’s 5.6 million jobless youth:
Our research led us to the following answers:
Clearly, the lack of availability of jobs in
Yet despite this availability of labor, employers are dissatisfied with applicants’ skills: 27 percent reported that they have left a vacancy open in the past year because they could not find anyone with the right skills. One-third said the lack of skills is causing major business problems, in the form of cost, quality, or time. Counterintuitively, employers from countries where youth unemployment is highest reported the greatest problems. So why is it that young people are not getting the skills that employers need? One reason is the failure of employers, education providers, and young people to understand one another. To cite our 2012 report, they operate in “parallel universes.”
The education-to-employment (E2E) path can be described
as a road with three intersections: enrolling in postsecondary education,
building the right skills, and finding a suitable job. The problem is that in
When it comes to enrolling in further education, the most
significant barrier in
At the second intersection, young people are often not learning a sufficient portfolio of general skills while they study, with employers reporting a particular shortage of soft skills such as spoken communication and work ethic. Employers and providers are not working together closely to address this.
At the final intersection, young people find the transition to work difficult. One-third fall into interim jobs after graduating, and many more struggle to find a job at all. Many lack access to career-support services at their postsecondary institution. Many more do not pursue a work placement, in spite of this being a good predictor of how quickly a young person will find a job after his or her studies are completed.
To refine our understanding of the issue, we divided young people and employers into segments to examine different interventions to achieve better education-to-employment outcomes Specifically, we looked at how much support young people received on their path from education to employment, and the extent of their desire to develop skills that would make them more employable (Exhibit 1).
Few young people have a successful journey to employment.
Only one of our segments, the so-called high achievers, which represent 10 percent of the youth surveyed, achieves a good employment outcome. This group succeeded because the young people in it receive a strong education and good information; they also focus on finding opportunities to build job skills. Another two segments, representing 11 percent of youths surveyed—what we call “coasters” and “meanderers”—receive strong support but are less motivated and end up only moderately satisfied with their job outcomes. The remaining four segments (79 percent) are frustrated by a lack of support and unhappy at their prospects. They exhibit different responses to these circumstances, from fighting for every opportunity they can get (but rarely succeeding) to losing heart and leaving education at the first opportunity.
We based our employer segmentation on the ease with which employers could find new hires and the degree to which they were prepared to invest in training (Exhibit 2). While two of the four segments are basically satisfied with their workforce, they start from very different places. One segment, representing 19 percent of employers, is able to attract strong candidates and invests substantially in training new hires. A high proportion of the companies in this group are large companies with an established market position. The other satisfied segment, representing 26 percent, finds it difficult to attract strong candidates but develops a strong workforce through training and partnerships. Of the two less satisfied segments, one (34 percent) reports moderate satisfaction but tackles the skills problem alone. The other (21 percent) is disproportionately made up of small businesses and is the least satisfied. This group struggles to find people with the right skills yet either does not, or cannot, invest in training.
Less than half of employers are satisfied by their workforce’s skill levels.
In contrast to the findings of our global survey, in
To reduce the cost of courses, one solution is to break up degree or vocational programs into individual modules that focus on building a particular set of skills while still counting toward a degree or formal qualification. Each of these modules would be short (weeks or months) and self-contained, enabling young people to combine and sequence them in the order that makes most sense for their career aspirations. This model also enables young people to take a break in their studies to work for a period, and then return and pick up where they left off.
To improve financing, governments and private financial institutions can offer low-interest loans to students pursuing courses that have a strong employment record; they can also explore initiatives that allow young people to repay loans in the form of services, such as tutoring younger students. Employers can play a role by promising jobs to young people (following a rigorous recruitment process) and then assuming responsibility for part or all of the costs of education in return for the opportunity to select the most successful graduates, trained with the most relevant skills they need. This latter option is only likely to be successful, however, for employers in sectors that face either a skills scarcity or high employee churn.
Young people, employers, and providers must change how
they think about the E2E process. To make rational decisions, young people need
to think more strategically about their futures. This is particularly important
Education providers should focus more on what happens to students after they leave school. Specifically, they should track graduates’ employment and their job satisfaction. To improve student prospects, education providers could work more closely with employers to make sure they are offering courses that really help young people prepare for the workplace.
Employers cannot wait for the right applicants to show up at their doorsteps. In the most effective interventions, employers and education providers work closely to design curricula that fit business needs; employers may even participate in teaching, by providing instructors. They might also consider increasing the availability of work placements and opportunities for practical learning. Larger enterprises may be able to go further, by setting up training academies to improve required skills for both themselves and their suppliers.
At a national level in
Involve the European Union
To help the most successful interventions reach the greatest number of young people, the European Union has a critical role to play in three areas:
Youth unemployment is a profound challenge to the future of
For more on this research, download the full report, Education to Employment: Getting Europe’s Youth into Work (PDF–7,235KB).