The World Bank Research Observor
Available Upon Purchase
Excerpts Follow from WUNRN
Addressing Gender-Based Violence:
A Critical Review of Interventions
article highlights the progress in building a knowledge base on
effective ways to increase access to justice for women who have
experienced gender-based violence, offer quality services to survivors,
and reduce levels of gender-based violence. While recognizing the
limited number of high-quality studies on program effectiveness,
this review of the literature highlights emerging good practices.
Much progress has recently been made in measuring gender-based
violence, most notably through a World Health Organization multicountry
study and Demographic and Health Surveys. Even so, country
coverage is still limited, and much of the information from other
data sources cannot be meaningfully compared because of
differences in how intimate partner violence is measured and
reported. The dearth of high-quality evaluations means that policy
recommendations in the short run must be based on emerging evidence
in developing economies (process evaluations, qualitative evaluations,
and imperfectly designed impact evaluations) and on more rigorous
impact evaluations from developed countries.
"Although there is much emerging evidence on the magnitude of gender-based violence, only a small subset of this evidence is comparable across countries.....The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently undertaken efforts to generate comparable estimates of the prevalence of violence by intimate partners (a subset of gender-based violence) across 15 sites in 11 countries.
In urban areas between 12.9 percent (Japan) and 48.6 percent (Peru) of women have suffered physical violence at some point in their lives. In rural areas, the lifetime prevalence rates for physical violence range from 33.8 percent (Brazil and Thailand) to 61 percent (Peru)....
This article presents an overview of gender-based violence, identifying the risk and protective factors associated with it and summarizing recent research on its socioeconomic costs and health consequences. The main contribution of the article is to identify good practice responses to gender-based violence in the three thematic areas that encompass the principal responses to date to gender-based violence:
*Increasing access to justice for survivors of gender-based violence
*Providing support to women who have been affected by violence
*Preventing gender-based violence
An ecological model that combines factors operating at the individual, relationship, community and society levels is the appropriate framework for examining the combination of risk factors that increases the likelihood of gender-based violence in a particular setting....
Policy recommendations must be based both on emerging evidence in developing economies (process evaluations, qualitative evaluations, and less than perfectly designed impact evaluations) and on more rigorous impact evaluations from developed countries - recognizing that solid evaluations are scarce even in developed countries.
Another important conclusion is that no single intervention will address all the risk factors for gender-based violence and reduce gender-based violence in the short run. Multiple interventions at different levels of the ecological model (individual, community, institutional, legal, and policy) are necessary.
Much progress has recently been made in measuring gender-based violence. Most notable are the World Health Organization Study (multicountry) and the Demographic and Health Surveys....
More fundamentally, information on other forms of gender-based violence - such as femicide, rape, sexual violence in situations of armed conflict, and trafficking in women and girls - continues to be scarce and incomplete.For these types of gender-based violence, methodologies that permit the collection of high-quality, comparable data across countries must be developed...."
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