ICASO - International Council of AIDS Service Organizations





Gender, Sexuality, Rights and HIV (2007)
High bandwidth (EN): Entire file (1.79mb .PDF file Open this document with Adobe Acrobat Reader)
Low bandwidth (EN):
Cover, Table of Contents, Executive Summary (580kb)
Chapter 1: Introduction (284kb)
Chapter 2: Socio-Cultural Factors (250kb)
Chapter 3: Eonomic Factors (89kb)
Chapter 4: Political Factors (45kb)
Chapter 5: Program and Services Access Factors (664kb)
Chapter 6: Overall Conclusions and Recommendations (23kb)
Chapter 7: Key Resources, Back Cover (51kb)


Gender, Sexuality, Rights and HIV

An Overview for Community Sector Organizations


" HIV and AIDS continue to be one of the most challenging developmental issues in human history. In the early days of the epidemic, HIV was seen as a disease striking mainly men. Today, women account for nearly half of the 39.5 million people living with HIV worldwide. Of the 3.8 million new HIV infections that occurred among adults worldwide in 2006, 50 per cent were among women. In sub-Saharan Africa where HIV transmission is predominantly heterosexual, almost 60 percent of those infected are women. This dramatic rise in HIV prevalence among women is due to gender inequality and blatant human rights violations. Gender determines the role and status of men and women that is culturally defined and carried on through a process of socialization starting from the early stage of infancy. This creates unequal power balances between men and women and also determines their unequal access to key resources such as information,education, employment, and credit. Vulnerability to HIV is also influenced by sexuality. Stigma and discrimination of certain sexualities leads to their marginalization and exclusion from mainstream health programs and services. This drives them underground and makes it difficult to reach them with HIV information and services, exacerbating their vulnerability to HIV.Too often, the gender- and sexuality-based determinants of HIV are either completely omitted or de-emphasized by decision makers and are seldom incorporated into HIV programs. Without addressing issues of inequality and violations of rights, overall efforts to stem the epidemic will be futile.


This document developed by ICASO is a resource for NGOs and CBOs to build greater understanding of how gender and sexuality determine vulnerability to HIV. The document also highlights major human rights declarations, treaties and recommendations that can be used by individuals and associations to advocate for their rights and hold decision makers accountable to their commitments. This document is a summary of a desk-based review of literature that examines the factors that contribute to the vulnerability and risk of HIV infection in men, women, and men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Though other sexual minorities such as transgender are equally vulnerable to HIV, vulnerabilities of transgender and other sexual minorities are outside the scope of this guide."


Link to the Complete guide: http://www.icaso.org/advocacy_briefings.html#gender


Copyright 2007 by the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO)



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